The responsible use of oxygen should also be promoted at all levels. Adequate monitoring is essential, especially in the premature infant <32 weeks gestation and <1 500g birth weight, as these infants are at an increased risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a leading cause of blindness in children. The second Benefits of Oxygen Saturation Targeting trial (BOOST II) recently reported that lower saturations of 85 - 89%, which reduce the risk of ROP, had a significantly higher rate of death than saturations of 91 - 95%. 9
As the condition is more prevalent in black women in the US and the UK, it has been suggested to be an explanation for the higher rate of preterm birth in these populations. It is opined that bacterial vaginosis before or during pregnancy may affect the decidual inflammatory response that leads to preterm birth. The condition known as aerobic vaginitis can be a serious risk factor for preterm labour; several previous studies failed to acknowledge the difference between aerobic vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis, which may explain some of the contradiction in the results.