It thus becomes quite impossible to believe in any theory that speaks of "boosting" power in modern times, simply because there has been no such boost . Here's a blow-up graph of the so-called "steroid era", starting at 1982 (because 1981 was strike-shortened and thus not a good data point). Understand that in this graph nothing has been "spliced out" save the single ball juicing of 1993/1994 (whether 1993 was or was not post-juicing is still debated); the numbers on the left would change were earlier splicings and wartime smoothings dropped, but the shape and scale of the graph would be unchanged.
Shropshire agrees, noting that in years past, “It wasn’t always clear what constituted getting a competitive advantage and what was unethical or illegal. Good people got caught up in it, not knowing how far was too far.” And, with so much grey area and so little supervision, ethical decisions are made in isolation. Pettitte, the Yankees pitcher, for example, says he stopped taking human-growth hormone because he “just didn’t feel right about it” — not because he was afraid of being caught. A clearly enforced policy would help establish the ethical “bright lines” players need, says Shropshire.
The other players involved all agreed to deals that included a waiver of the right to appeal.  Cruz blamed a gastrointestinal infection for his drug use and remarked that faced with the weight loss from the infection he was unsure he would be physically able to play and "made an error in judgment that I deeply regret, and I accept full responsibility for that error."  An emotional Cabrera said he had taken a banned substance for four days in 2012 to aid in injury recovering before stopping because "I realized it wasn't necessary. My heart and my conscience was killing me."  Peralta remarked "I take full responsibility for my actions, have no excuses for my lapse in judgment and I accept my suspension."