Bronchospasm are caused by a number of reasons. Lower respiratory tract conditions such as asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and emphysema can result in contraction of the airways. Other causes are side effects of topical decongestants such as oxymetazoline and phenylephrine . Both of these medications activate alpha-1 adrenergic receptors that result in smooth muscle constriction. Non-selective beta blockers are known to facilitate bronchospasm as well. Beta blockers bind into the β2 receptors and block the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine from binding to its receptors, causing shortness of breath.