Glucose toxicity occurs when insulin secretion is reduced by prolonged hyperglycemia. Prolonged hyperglycemia can occur due to a number of causes. The prolonged and high-dose therapeutic use of glucocorticosteroids can induce diabetes mellitus. The use of exogenous progestogens can lead to growth hormone excess. Progestogens also have an affinity for glucocorticosteroid receptors. In obese dogs, tissue receptors have decreased insulin sensitivity. This leads to a greater demand for insulin, which can result in exhaustion of the islets of Langerhans.
Budesonide has a systemic clearance of approximately L/min in 4-6 years old asthmatic children. Per kg body weight children have a clearance which is approximately 50% greater than in adults. The terminal half-life of budesonide after inhalation is approximately hours in asthmatic children. This is about the same as in healthy adults. In asthmatic children treated with Pulmicort Turbohaler (800 μg single dose), plasma concentration reached Cmax ( nmol/L) at minutes after inhalation, and then decreased rapidly; AUC was nmol·h/L. The value for AUC is generally comparable to that observed in adults at the same dose, however, the Cmax value tends to be higher in children. Lung deposition in children (31% of the nominal dose) is similar to that measured in healthy adults (34% of nominal dose).
With a few exceptions as noted below, one should avoid using all medications in pregnant and lactating (nursing) dogs. There may be instances in which a medication not recommended for use during pregnancy may need to be used to save the life of the bitch, even though it may potentially harm the fetuses.
NOTE: According to the Merck Veterinary Manual , this is only a partial listing of drugs that should be avoided in pregnant or nursing dogs. A listing of all such drugs is beyond the scope of this article. If you have concerns regarding a specific drug, make sure you do an internet search for that particular drug or purchase a copy of the Merck Vet Manual to have on-hand.