Two cell theory ovarian steroidogenesis

Muscle strength, and stamina for sustained physical effort, decline in function with age in humans and other species. Skeletal muscle is a tissue composed largely of multinucleated myofibers, elements that arise from the fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. Accumulation of DNA damage with age in mammalian muscle has been reported in at least 18 studies since 1971. [22] We will mention here only two of the more recent studies in rodents plus one in humans. Hamilton et al. [30] reported that the oxidative DNA damage 8-OHdG accumulates in heart and skeletal muscle (as well as in brain, kidney and liver) of both mouse and rat with age. In humans, increases in 8-OHdG with age were reported for skeletal muscle. [31] Catalase is an enzyme that removes hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species, and thus limits oxidative DNA damage. In mice, when catalase expression is increased specifically in mitochondria, oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG) in skeletal muscle is decreased and lifespan is increased by about 20%. [32] [33] These findings suggest that mitochondria are a significant source of the oxidative damages contributing to aging.

Two cell theory ovarian steroidogenesis

two cell theory ovarian steroidogenesis

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